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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

she shrieks with terror, and flies to conceal herself." (A. 

Walker, _Beauty_, p. 15.) This fear of being seen with the head 

uncovered exists still, M. Van Gennep informs me, in some regions 

of France, as in Brittany. 

 

So far it has only been necessary to refer incidentally to the connection 

of modesty with clothing. I have sought to emphasize the unquestionable, 

but often forgotten, fact that modesty is in its origin independent of 

clothing, that physiological modesty takes precedence of anatomical 

modesty, and that the primary factors of modesty were certainly developed 

long before the discovery of either ornament or garments. The rise of 

clothing probably had its first psychical basis on an emotion of modesty 

already compositely formed of the elements we have traced. Both the main 

elementary factors, it must be noted, must naturally tend to develop and 

unite in a more complex, though--it may well be--much less intense, 

emotion. The impulse which leads the female animal, as it leads some 

African women when found without their girdles, to squat firmly down on 

the earth, becomes a more refined and extended play of gesture and 

ornament and garment. A very notable advance, I may remark, is made when 

this primary attitude of defence against the action of the male becomes a 

defence against his eyes. We may thus explain the spread of modesty to 

various parts of the body, even when we exclude the more special influence 

of the evil eye. The breasts very early become a focus of modesty in 

women; this may be observed among many naked, or nearly naked, negro 

races; the tendency of the nates to become the chief seat of modesty in 

many parts of Africa may probably be, in large part, thus explained, since 

the full development of the gluteal regions is often the greatest 

attraction an African woman can possess.[47] The same cause contributes, 

doubtless, to the face becoming, in some races, the centre of modesty. We 

see the influence of this defence against strange eyes in the special 

precautions in gesture or clothing taken by the women in various parts of 

the world, against the more offensive eyes of civilized Europeans. 

 

But in thus becoming directed only against sight, and not against action, 

the gestures of modesty are at once free to become merely those of 

coquetry. When there is no real danger of offensive action, there is no 

need for more than playful defence, and no serious anxiety should that 

defence be taken as a disguised invitation. Thus the road is at once fully 

open toward the most civilized manifestations of the comedy of courtship. 

 

In the same way the social fear of arousing disgust combines easily and 

perfectly with any new development in the invention of ornament or 

clothing as sexual lures. Even among the most civilized races it has often 

been noted that the fashion of feminine garments (as also sometimes the 

use of scents) has the double object of concealing and attracting. It is 

so with the little apron of the young savage belle. The heightening of the 

attraction is, indeed, a logical outcome of the fear of evoking disgust. 

 

It is possible, as some ethnographists have observed,[48] that intercrural 

cords and other primitive garments have a physical ground, inasmuch as 

they protect the most sensitive and unprotected part of the body, 

especially in women. We may note in this connection the significant 

remarks of K. von den Steinen, who argues that among Brazilian tribes the 


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