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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

barbarous stages of human civilization. 

 

This economic factor necessarily involved the introduction of a new moral 

element into modesty. If a woman's chastity is the property of another 

person, it is essential that she shall be modest in order that men may not 

be tempted to incur the penalties involved by the infringement of property 

rights. Thus modesty is strictly inculcated on women in order that men may 

be safeguarded from temptation. The fact was overlooked that modesty is 

itself a temptation. Immodesty being, on this ground, disapproved by men, 

a new motive for modesty is furnished to women. In the book which the 

Knight of the Tower, Landry, wrote in the fourteenth century, for the 

instruction of his daughters, this factor of modesty is naively revealed. 

He tells his daughters of the trouble that David got into through the 

thoughtlessness of Bathsheba, and warns them that "every woman ought 

religiously to conceal herself when dressing and washing, and neither out 

of vanity nor yet to attract attention show either her hair, or her neck, 

or her breast, or any part which ought to be covered." Hinton went so far 

as to regard what he termed "body modesty," as entirely a custom imposed 

upon women by men with the object of preserving their own virtue. While 

this motive is far from being the sole source of modesty, it must 

certainly be borne in mind as an inevitable outcome of the economic factor 

of modesty. 

 

In Europe it seems probable that the generally accepted conceptions of 

mediaeval chivalry were not without influence in constituting the forms in 

which modesty shows itself among us. In the early middle ages there seems 

to have been a much greater degree of physical familiarity between the 

sexes than is commonly found among barbarians elsewhere. There was 

certainly considerable promiscuity in bathing and indifference to 

nakedness. It seems probable, as Durkheim points out,[56] that this state 

of things was modified in part by the growing force of the dictates of 

Christian morality, which regarded all intimate approaches between the 

sexes as sinful, and in part by the influence of chivalry with its 

aesthetic and moral ideals of women, as the representative of all the 

delicacies and elegancies of civilization. This ideal was regarded as 

incompatible with the familiarities of the existing social relationships 

between the sexes, and thus a separation, which at first existed only in 

art and literature, began by a curious reaction to exert an influence on 

real life. 

 

The chief new feature--it is scarcely a new element--added to modesty when 

an advanced civilization slowly emerges from barbarism is the elaboration 

of its social ritual.[57] Civilization expands the range of modesty, and 

renders it, at the same time, more changeable. The French seventeenth 

century, and the English eighteenth, represent early stages of modern 

European civilization, and they both devoted special attention to the 

elaboration of the minute details of modesty. The frequenters of the Hotel 

Rambouillet, the _precieuses_ satirized by Moliere, were not only engaged 

in refining the language; they were refining feelings and ideas and 

enlarging the boundaries of modesty.[58] In England such famous and 

popular authors as Swift and Sterne bear witness to a new ardor of modesty 

in the sudden reticences, the dashes, and the asterisks, which are found 

throughout their works. The altogether new quality of literary prurience, 


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