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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

of which Sterne is still the classical example, could only have arisen on 

the basis of the new modesty which was then overspreading society and 

literature. Idle people, mostly, no doubt, the women in _salons_ and 

drawing-rooms, people more familiar with books than with the realities of 

life, now laid down the rules of modesty, and were ever enlarging it, ever 

inventing new subtleties of gesture and speech, which it would be immodest 

to neglect, and which are ever being rendered vulgar by use and ever 

changing. 

 

It was at this time, probably, that the custom of inventing an 

arbitrary private vocabulary of words and phrases for the purpose 

of disguising references to functions and parts of the body 

regarded as immodest and indecent, first began to become common. 

Such private slang, growing up independently in families, and 

especially among women, as well as between lovers, is now almost 

universal. It is not confined to any European country, and has 

been studied in Italy by Niceforo (_Il Gergo_, 1897, cap. 1 and 

2), who regards it as a weapon of social defence against an 

inquisitive or hostile environment, since it enables things to be 

said with a meaning which is unintelligible to all but the 

initiated person. While it is quite true that the custom is 

supported by the consciousness of its practical advantages, it 

has another source in a desire to avoid what is felt to be the 

vulgar immodesty of direct speech. This is sufficiently shown by 

the fact that such slang is mostly concerned with the sacro-pubic 

sphere. It is one of the chief contributions to the phenomena of 

modesty furnished by civilization. The claims of modesty having 

effected the clothing of the body, the impulse of modesty finds a 

further sphere of activity--half-playful, yet wholly 

imperative--in the clothing of language. 

 

Modesty of speech has, however, a deep and primitive basis, 

although in modern Europe it only became conspicuous at the 

beginning of the eighteenth century. "All over the world," as 

Dufour put it, "to do is good, to say is bad." Reticences of 

speech are not adequately accounted for by the statement that 

modesty tends to irradiate from the action to the words 

describing the action, for there is a tendency for modesty to be 

more deeply rooted in the words than in the actions. "Modest 

women," as Kleinpaul truly remarks, "have a much greater horror 

of saying immodest things than of doing them; they believe that 

fig-leaves were especially made for the mouth." (Kleinpaul, 

_Sprache ohne Worte_, p. 309.) It is a tendency which is linked 

on to the religious and ritual feeling which we have already 

found to be a factor of modesty, and which, even when applied to 

language, appears to have an almost or quite instinctive basis, 

for it is found among the most primitive savages, who very 

frequently regard a name as too sacred or dangerous to utter. 

Among the tribes of Central Australia, in addition to his 

ordinary name, each individual has his sacred or secret name, 

only known to the older and fully initiated members of his own 

totemic group; among the Warramunga, it is not permitted to women 

to utter even a man's ordinary name, though she knows it. 

(Spencer and Gillen, _Northern Tribes of Central Australia_, p. 

581.) In the mysterious region of sex, this feeling easily takes 


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