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("Psychologie de la Pudeur," _La Revue_, Nov. 15, 1901) remarks that shame
differs from modesty in being, not a fear, but a kind of grief; this
position seems untenable.
 Bashfulness in children has been dealt with by Professor Baldwin; see
especially his _Mental Development in the Child and the Race_, Chapter VI,
pp. 146 et seq., and _Social Interpretations in Mental Development_,
 Bell, "A Preliminary Study of the Emotion of Love Between the Sexes,"
_American Journal Psychology_, July, 1902.
 Professor Starbuck (_Psychology of Religion_, Chapter XXX) refers to
unpublished investigations showing that recognition of the rights of
others also exhibits a sudden increment at the age of puberty.
 Perez, _L'Enfant de Trois a Sept Ans_, 1886, pp. 267-277.
 It must be remembered that the Medicean Venus is merely a
comparatively recent and familiar embodiment of a natural attitude which
is very ancient, and had impressed sculptors at a far earlier period.
Reinach, indeed, believes ("La Sculpture en Europe," _L'Anthropologie_,
No. 5, 1895) that the hand was first brought to the breast to press out
the milk, and expresses the idea of exuberance, and that the attitude of
the Venus of Medici as a symbol of modesty came later; he remarks that, as
regards both hands, this attitude may be found in a figurine of Cyprus,
2,000 years before Christ. This is, no doubt, correct, and I may add that
Babylonian figurines of Ishtar, the goddess of fertility, represent her as
clasping her hands to her breasts or her womb.
 When there is no sexual fear the impulse of modesty may be entirely
inhibited. French ladies under the old Regime (as A. Franklin points out
in his _Vie Privee d'Autrefois_) sometimes showed no modesty towards their
valets, not admitting the possibility of any sexual advance, and a lady
would, for example, stand up in her bath while a valet added hot water by
pouring it between her separated feet.
 I do not hereby mean to deny a certain degree of normal periodicity
even to the human male; but such periodicity scarcely involves any element
of sexual fear or attitude of sexual defence, in man because it is too
slight to involve complete latency of the sexual functions, in other
species because latency of sexual function in the male is always
accompanied by corresponding latency in the female.
 H. Northcote, _Christianity and the Sex Problem_, p. 8. Crawley had
previously argued (_The Mystic Rose_, pp. 134, 180) that this same
necessity for solitude during the performance of nutritive, sexual, and
excretory functions, is a factor in investing such functions with a
potential sacredness, so that the concealment of them became a religious
 _Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_, 1878, p. 26.
 _Essais_, livre ii, Ch. XV.
 _Monsieur Nicolas_, vol. i, p. 89.
 Lane, _Arabian Society_, p. 228. The Arab insistence on the value of
virginal modesty is well brought out in one of the most charming stories
of the _Arabian Nights_, "The History of the Mirror of Virginity."
 This has especially been emphasized by Crawley, _The Mystic Rose_,
pp. 181, 324 et seq., 353.
 _Geschlecht und Gesellschaft_, Bd. II, Heft 8, p. 358.
 This, however, is not always or altogether true of experienced women.
Thus, the Russian correspondent already referred to, who as a youth was
accustomed, partly out of shyness, to feign complete ignorance of sexual
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