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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

of shame. But he also argues that shame is simply psychic stasis, and it 

is quite easy to see, as in the above case, that the fear of causing 

disgust is simply a manifestation of psychic stasis. There is a conflict 

in the woman's mind between the idea of herself which she has already 

given, and the more degraded idea of herself which she fears she is likely 

to give, and this conflict is settled when she is made to feel that the 

first idea may still be maintained under the new circumstances. 

 

[33] We neither of us knew that we had merely made afresh a very ancient 

discovery. Casanova, more than a century ago, quoted the remark of a 

friend of his, that the easiest way to overcome the modesty of a woman is 

to suppose it non-existent; and he adds a saying, which he attributes to 

Clement of Alexandria, that modesty, which seems so deeply rooted in 

women, only resides in the linen that covers them, and vanishes when it 

vanishes. The passage to which Casanova referred occurs in the 

_Paedagogus_, and has already been quoted. The observation seems to have 

appealed strongly to the Fathers, always glad to make a point against 

women, and I have met with it in Cyprian's _De Habitu Feminarum_. It also 

occurs in Jerome's treatise against Jovinian. Jerome, with more scholarly 

instinct, rightly presents the remark as a quotation: "_Scribit Herodotus 

quod mulier cum veste deponat et verecundiam_." In Herodotus the saying is 

attributed to Gyges (Book I, Chapter VIII). We may thus trace very far 

back into antiquity an observation which in English has received its 

classical expression from Chaucer, who, in his "Wife of Bath's Prologue," 

has:-- 

 

"He sayde, a woman cast hir shame away, 

When she cast of hir smok." 

 

I need not point out that the analysis of modesty offered above robs this 

venerable saying of any sting it may have possessed as a slur upon women. 

In such a case, modesty is largely a doubt as to the spectator's attitude, 

and necessarily disappears when that doubt is satisfactorily resolved. As 

we have seen, the Central Australian maidens were very modest with regard 

to the removal of their single garment, but when that removal was 

accomplished and accepted, they were fearless. 

 

[34] The same result occurs more markedly under the deadening influence of 

insanity. Grimaldi (_Il Manicomio Moderno_, 1888) found that modesty is 

lacking in 50 per cent, of the insane. 

 

[35] For some facts bearing on this point, see Houssay, _Industries of 

Animals_, Chapter VII. "The Defence and Sanitation of Dwellings;" also P. 

Ballion, _De l'Instinct de Proprete chez les Animaux_. 

 

[36] Thus, Stevens mentions (_Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_, p. 182, 1897) 

that the Dyaks of Malacca always wash the sexual organs, even after 

urination, and are careful to use the left hand in doing so. The left hand 

is also reserved for such uses among the Jekris of the Niger coast 

(_Journal of the Anthropological Institute_, p. 122, 1898). 

 

[37] Lombroso and Ferrero--who adopt the derivation of _pudor_ from 

_putere_; i.e., from the repugnance caused by the decomposition of the 

vaginal secretions--consider that the fear of causing disgust to men is 

the sole origin of modesty among savage women, as also it remains the sole 

form of modesty among some prostitutes to-day. (_La Donna Delinquente_, p. 

540.) Important as this factor is in the constitution of the emotion of 

modesty, I need scarcely add that I regard so exclusive a theory as 


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