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 _Das Weib_, Ch. VI.
 For references as to a similar feeling among other savages, see
Westermarck, _History of Human Marriage_, p. 152.
 See e.g., Bourke, _Scatologic Rites_, pp. 141, 145, etc.
 Crawley, op. cit., Ch. VII.
 S, Reinach, _Cultes, Mythes et Religions_, p. 172.
 Tertullian, _De Virginibus Velandis_, cap. 17. Hottentot women, also
(Fritsch, _Eingeborene Suedafrika's_, p. 311), cover their head with a
cloth, and will not be persuaded to remove it.
 Wellhausen, _Reste Arabischen Heidentums_, p. 196. The same custom is
found among Tuareg men though it is not imperative for the women
(Duveyrier, _Les Touaregs du Nord_, p. 291).
 Quoted in _Zentralblatt fuer Anthropologie_, 1906, Heft I, p. 21.
 Or rather, perhaps, because the sight of their nakedness might lead
the angels into sin. See W.G. Sumner, _Folkways_, p. 431.
 In Moruland, Emin Bey remarked that women are mostly naked, but some
wear a girdle, with a few leaves hanging behind. The women of some negro
tribes, who thus cover themselves behind, if deprived of this sole
covering, immediately throw themselves on the ground on their backs, in
order to hide their nakedness.
 E.g., Letourneau, _L'Evolution de la Morale_, p. 146.
 Spencer and Gillen, _Northern Tribes of Central Australia_, p. 683.
 J.R. Forster, _Observations Made During a Voyage Round the World_,
1728, p. 395.
 Westermarck (_History of Human Marriage_, Ch. IX) ably sets forth
this argument, with his usual wealth of illustration. Crawley (_Mystic
Rose_, p. 135) seeks to qualify this conclusion by arguing that tattooing,
etc., of the sex organs is not for ornament but for the purpose of
magically insulating the organs, and is practically a permanent amulet or
 _Iliad_, II, 262. Waitz gives instances (_Anthropology_, p. 301)
showing that nakedness is sometimes a mark of submission.
 The Celtic races, in their days of developed barbarism, seem to have
been relatively free from the idea of proprietorship in women, and it was
probably among the Irish (as we learn from the seventeenth century
_Itinerary_ of Fynes Moryson) that the habit of nakedness was longest
preserved among the upper social class women of Western Europe.
 A.B. Ellis, _Tshi-Speaking Peoples_, p. 280.
 Burnet, _Life and Death of Rochester_, p. 110.
 _L'Annee Sociologique_, seventh year, 1904, p. 439.
 Tallemont des Reaux, who began to write his _Historiettes_ in 1657,
says of the Marquise de Rambouillet: "Elle est un peu trop delicate ... on
n'oscrait prononcer le mot de _cul_. Cela va dans l'exces." Half a century
later, in England, Mandeville, in the Remarks appended to his _Fable of
the Bees_, refers to the almost prudish modesty inculcated on children
from their earliest years.
 In one of its civilized developments, this ritualized modesty becomes
prudery, which is defined by Forel (_Die Sexuelle Frage_, Fifth ed., p.
125) as "codified sexual morality." Prudery is fossilized modesty, and no
longer reacts vitally. True modesty, in an intelligent civilized person,
is instinctively affected by motives and circumstances, responding
sensitively to its relationships.
 _Memoires de Madame d'Epinay_, Part I, Ch. V. Thirty years earlier,
Mandeville had written, in England, that "the modesty of women is the
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