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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

accident that, as has been often observed, criminals, or the 

antisocial element of the community--whether by the habits of 

their lives or by congenital abnormality--blush less easily than 

normal persons. Kroner (_Das koerperliche Gefuehl_, 1887, p. 130) 

remarks: "The origin of a specific connection between shame and 

blushing is the work of a _social selection_. It is certainly an 

immediate advantage for a man not to blush; indirectly, however, 

it is a disadvantage, because in other ways he will be known as 

shameless, and on that account, as a rule, he will be shut out 

from propagation. This social selection will be specially 

exercised on the female sex, and on this account, women blush to 

a greater extent, and more readily, than men." 

 

The importance of the blush, and the emotional confusion behind it, as the 

sanction of modesty is shown by the significant fact that, by lulling 

emotional confusion, it is possible to inhibit the sense of modesty. In 

other words, we are here in the presence of a fear--to a large extent a 

sex-fear--impelling to concealment, and dreading self-attention; this fear 

naturally disappears, even though its ostensible cause remains, when it 

becomes apparent that there is no reason for fear. 

 

That is the reason why nakedness in itself has nothing to do with modesty 

or immodesty; it is the conditions under which the nakedness occurs which 

determine whether or not modesty will be roused. If none of the factors of 

modesty are violated, if no embarrassing self-attention is excited, if 

there is a consciousness of perfect propriety alike in the subject and in 

the spectator, nakedness is entirely compatible with the most scrupulous 

modesty. A. Duval, a pupil of Ingres, tells that a female model was once 

quietly posing, completely nude, at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Suddenly she 

screamed and ran to cover herself with her garments. She had seen a 

workman on the roof gazing inquisitively at her through a skylight.[66] 

And Paola Lombroso describes how a lady, a diplomatist's wife, who went to 

a gathering where she found herself the only woman in evening dress, felt, 

to her own surprise, such sudden shame that she could not keep back her 

tears. 

 

It thus comes about that the emotion of modesty necessarily depends on 

the feelings of the people around. The absence of the emotion by no means 

signifies immodesty, provided that the reactions of modesty are at once 

set in motion under the stress of a spectator's eye that is seen to be 

lustful, inquisitive, or reproachful. This is proved to be the case among 

primitive peoples everywhere. The Japanese woman, naked as in daily life 

she sometimes is, remains unconcerned because she excites no disagreeable 

attention, but the inquisitive and unmannerly European's eye at once 

causes her to feel confusion. Stratz, a physician, and one, moreover, who 

had long lived among the Javanese who frequently go naked, found that 

naked Japanese women felt no embarrassment in his presence. 

 

It is doubtless as a cloak to the blush that we must explain the curious 

influence of darkness in restraining the manifestations of modesty, as 

many lovers have discovered, and as we may notice in our cities after 

dark. This influence of darkness in inhibiting modesty is a very ancient 

observation. Burton, in the _Anatomy of Melancholy_, quotes from Dandinus 

the saying "_Nox facit impudentes_," directly associating this with 


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