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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

attribute a curious complementary relationship between the face and the 

sacro-pubic region as centres of anatomical modesty. The women of some 

African tribes who go naked, Emin Bey remarked, cover the face with the 

hand under the influence of modesty. Martial long since observed (Lib. 

iii, LXVIII) that when an innocent girl looks at the penis she gazes 

through her fingers. Where, as among many Mohammedan peoples, the face is 

the chief focus of modesty, the exposure of the rest of the body, 

including sometimes even the sacro-pubic region, and certainly the legs 

and thighs, often becomes a matter of indifference.[69] 

 

This concealment of the face is more than a convention; it has a 

psychological basis. We may observe among ourselves the well-marked 

feminine tendency to hide the face in order to cloak a possible blush, and 

to hide the eyes as a method of lulling self-consciousness, a method 

fabulously attributed to the ostrich with the same end of concealment.[70] 

A woman who is shy with her lover will sometimes experience little or no 

difficulty in showing any part of her person provided she may cover her 

face. When, in gynecological practice, examination of the sexual organs is 

necessary, women frequently find evident satisfaction in concealing the 

face with the hands, although not the slightest attention is being 

directed toward the face, and when an unsophisticated woman is betrayed 

into a confession which affects her modesty she is apt to turn her back to 

her interlocutor. "When the face of woman is covered," it has been said, 

"her heart is bared," and the Catholic Church has recognized this 

psychological truth by arranging that in the confessional the penitent's 

face shall not be visible. The gay and innocent freedom of southern women 

during Carnival is due not entirely to the permitted license of the season 

or the concealment of identity, but to the mask that hides the face. In 

England, during Queen Elizabeth's reign and at the Restoration, it was 

possible for respectable women to be present at the theatre, even during 

the performance of the most free-spoken plays, because they wore masks. 

The fan has often subserved a similar end.[71] 

 

All such facts serve to show that, though the forms of modesty may change, 

it is yet a very radical constituent of human nature in all stages of 

civilization, and that it is, to a large extent, maintained by the 

mechanism of blushing. 

 

 

FOOTNOTES: 

 

[64] Melinaud ("Pourquoi Rougit-on?" _Revue des Deux Mondes_, 1 Octobre, 

1893) points out that blushing is always associated with fear, and 

indicates, in the various conditions under which it may arise,--modesty, 

timidity, confusion,--that we have something to conceal which we fear may 

be discovered. "All the evidence," Partridge states, "seems to point to 

the conclusion that the mental state underlying blushing belongs to the 

fear family. The presence of the feeling of dread, the palpitation of the 

heart, the impulse to escape, to hide, the shock, all confirms this view." 

 

[65] G. Stanley Hall, "A Study of Fears," _American Journal Psychology_, 

1897. 

 

[66] Men are also very sensitive to any such inquisitiveness on the part 

of the opposite sex. To this cause, perhaps, and possibly, also, to the 

fear of causing disgust, may be ascribed the objection of men to undress 

before women artists and women doctors. I am told there is often 

difficulty in getting men to pose nude to women artists. Sir Jonathan 


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