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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

IV. 

 

Summary of the Factors of Modesty--The Future of Modesty--Modesty an 

Essential Element of Love. 

 

 

We have seen that the factors of modesty are numerous. To attempt to 

explain modesty by dismissing it as merely an example of psychic 

paralysis, of _Stauung_, is to elude the problem by the statement of what 

is little more than a truism. Modesty is a complexus of emotions with 

their concomitant ideas which we must unravel to comprehend. 

 

We have found among the factors of modesty: (1) the primitive animal 

gesture of sexual refusal on the part of the female when she is not at 

that moment of her generative life at which she desires the male's 

advances; (2) the fear of arousing disgust, a fear primarily due to the 

close proximity of the sexual centre to the points of exit of those 

excretions which are useless and unpleasant, even in many cases to 

animals; (3) the fear of the magic influence of sexual phenomena, and the 

ceremonial and ritual practices primarily based on this fear, and 

ultimately passing into simple rules of decorum which are signs and 

guardians of modesty; (4) the development of ornament and clothing, 

concomitantly fostering alike the modesty which represses male sexual 

desire and the coquetry which seeks to allure it; (5) the conception of 

women as property, imparting a new and powerful sanction to an emotion 

already based on more natural and primitive facts. 

 

It must always be remembered that these factors do not usually occur 

separately. Very often they are all of them implied in a single impulse of 

modesty. We unravel the cord in order to investigate its construction, but 

in real life the strands are more or less indistinguishably twisted 

together. 

 

It may still be asked finally whether, on the whole, modesty really 

becomes a more prominent emotion as civilization advances. I do not think 

this position can be maintained. It is a great mistake, as we have seen, 

to suppose that in becoming extended modesty also becomes intensified. On 

the contrary, this very extension is a sign of weakness. Among savages, 

modesty is far more radical and invincible than among the civilized. Of 

the Araucanian women of Chile, Treutler has remarked that they are 

distinctly more modest than the Christian white population, and such 

observations might be indefinitely extended. It is, as we have already 

noted, in a new and crude civilization, eager to mark its separation from 

a barbarism it has yet scarcely escaped, that we find an extravagant and 

fantastic anxiety to extend the limits of modesty in life, and art, and 

literature. In older and more mature civilizations--in classical 

antiquity, in old Japan, in France--modesty, while still a very real 

influence, becomes a much less predominant and all-pervading influence. In 

life it becomes subservient to human use, in art to beauty, in literature 

to expression. 

 

Among ourselves we may note that modesty is a much more invincible motive 

among the lower social classes than among the more cultivated classes. 

This is so even when we should expect the influence of occupation to 

induce familiarity. Thus I have been told of a ballet-girl who thinks it 

immodest to bathe in the fashion customary at the seaside, and cannot make 

up her mind to do so, but she appears on the stage every night in tights 

as a matter of course; while Fanny Kemble, in her _Reminiscences_, tells 

of an actress, accustomed to appear in tights, who died a martyr to 

modesty rather than allow a surgeon to see her inflamed knee. Modesty is, 


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