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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

of that nutrition. 

 

At this stage it is natural to inquire what the corresponding phenomena 

are among animals. Unfortunately, imperfect as is our comprehension of the 

human phenomena, our knowledge of the corresponding phenomena among 

animals is much more fragmentary and incomplete. Among most animals 

menstruation does not exist, being replaced by what is known as heat, or 

oestrus, which usually occurs once or twice a year, in spring and in 

autumn, sometimes affecting the male as well as the female.[87] There is, 

however, a great deal of progression in the upward march of the phenomena, 

as we approach our own and allied zooelogical series. Heat in domesticated 

cows usually occurs every three weeks. The female hippopotamus in the 

Zooelogical Gardens has been observed to exhibit monthly sexual excitement, 

with swelling and secretion from the vulva. Progression is not only toward 

greater frequency with higher evolution or with increased domestication, 

but there is also a change in the character of the flow. As Wiltshire,[88] 

in his remarkable lectures on the "Comparative Physiology of 

Menstruation," asserted as a law, the more highly evolved the animal, the 

more sanguineous the catamenial flow. 

 

It is not until we reach the monkeys that this character of the flow 

becomes well marked. Monthly sanguineous discharges have been observed 

among many monkeys. In the seventeenth century various observers in many 

parts of the world--Bohnius, Peyer, Helbigius, Van der Wiel, and 

others--noted menstruation in monkeys.[89] Buffon observed it among 

various monkeys as well as in the orang-utan. J.G. St. Hilaire and Cuvier, 

many years ago, declared that menstruation exists among a variety of 

monkeys and lower apes. Rengger described a vaginal discharge in a species 

of cebus in Paraguay, while Raciborski observed in the Jardin des Plantes 

that the menstrual haemorrhage in guenons was so abundant that the floor of 

the cage was covered by it to a considerable extent; the same variety of 

monkey was observed at Surinam, by Hill, a surgeon in the Dutch army, who 

noted an abundant sanguineous flow occurring at every new moon, and 

lasting about three days, the animal at this time also showing signs of 

sexual excitement.[90] 

 

The macaque and the baboon appear to be the non-human animals, in which 

menstruation has been most carefully observed. In the former, besides the 

flow, Bland Sutton remarks that "all the naked or pale-colored parts of 

the body, such as the face, neck, and ischial regions, assume a lively 

pink color; in some cases, it is a vivid red."[91] The flow is slight, but 

the coloring lasts several days, and in warm weather the labia are much 

swollen. 

 

Heape[92] has most fully and carefully described menstruation in monkeys. 

He found at Calcutta that the _Macacus cynomolgus_ menstruated regularly 

on the 20th of December, 20th of January, and about the 20th of February. 

The _Cynocephalus porcaria_ and the _Semnopithecus entellus_ both 

menstruated each month for about four days. In the _Macaci rhesus_ and 

_cynomolgus_ at menstruation "the nipples and vulva become swollen and 

deeply congested, and the skin of the buttocks swollen, tense, and of a 

brilliant-red or even purple color. The abdominal wall also, for a short 

space upward, and the inside of the thighs, sometimes as far down as the 

heel, and the under surface of the tail for half its length or more, are 

all colored a vivid red, while the skin of the face, especially about the 


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