Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

Distant, who kept a female baboon for some time, has recorded the dates of 

menstruation during a year. He found that nine periods occurred during the 

year. The average length between the periods was nearly six weeks, but 

they occurred more frequently in the late autumn and the winter than in 

the summer.[93] 

 

It is an interesting fact, Heape noted, that, notwithstanding 

menstruation, the seasonal influence, or rut, still persisted in the 

monkeys he investigated. 

 

In the anthropoid apes, Hartmann remarks that several observers have 

recorded periodic menstruation in the chimpanzee, with flushing and 

enlargement of the external parts, and protrusion of the external lips, 

which are not usually visible, while there is often excessive enlargement 

and reddening of these parts and of the posterior callosities during 

sexual excitement. Very little, however, appears to be definitely known 

regarding any form of menstruation in the higher apes. M. Deniker, who has 

made a special study of the anthropoid apes, informs me that he has so far 

been unable to make definite observations regarding the existence of 

menstruation. Moll remarks that he received information regarding such a 

phenomenon in the orang-utan. A pair of orang-utans was kept in the Berlin 

Zooelogical Gardens some years ago, and the female was stated to have at 

intervals a menstrual flow resembling that of women, and during this 

period to refrain from sexual congress, which was otherwise usually 

exercised at regular intervals, at least every two or three days; Moll 

adds, however, that, while his informant is a reliable man, the length of 

time that has elapsed may have led him to make mistakes in details. Keith, 

in a paper read before the Zooelogical Society of London, has described 

menstruation in a chimpanzee; it occurred every twenty-third or 

twenty-fourth day, and lasted for three days; the discharge was profuse, 

and first appeared in about the ninth or tenth year.[94] 

 

What is menstruation? It is easy to describe it, by its obvious symptoms, 

as a monthly discharge of blood from the uterus, but nearly as much as 

that was known in the infancy of the world. When we seek to probe more 

intimately into the nature of menstruation we are still baffled, not 

merely as regards its cause, but even as regards its precise mechanism. 

"The primary cause of menstruation remains unexplained"; "the cause of 

menstruation remains as obscure as ever"; so conclude two of the most 

thorough and cautious investigators into this subject.[95] It is, however, 

widely accepted that the main cause of menstruation is a rhythmic 

contraction of the uterus,--the result of a disappointed preparation for 

impregnation,--a kind of miniature childbirth. This seems to be the most 

reasonable view of menstruation; i.e., as an abortion of a decidua. 

Burdach (according to Beard) was the first who described menstruation as 

an abortive parturition. "The hypothesis," Marshall and Jolly conclude, 

"that the entire pro-oestrous process is of the nature of a preparation 

for the lodgment of the ovum is in accordance with the facts."[96] 

Fortunately, since we are here primarily concerned with its psychological 

aspects, the precise biological cause and physiological nature of 

menstruation do not greatly concern us. 

 

There is, however, one point which of late years has been definitely 

determined, and which should not be passed without mention: the relation 

of menstruation to ovulation. It was once supposed that the maturation of 


Page 1 from 7: [1]  2   3   4   5   6   7   Forward