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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

persons, really males, who have from infancy been brought up in 

the belief that they are girls, and who show, and feel, all the 

shrinking reticence and blushing modesty of their supposed sex. 

But when the error is discovered, and they are restored to their 

proper sex, this is quickly changed, and they exhibit all the 

boldness of masculinity. (See e.g., Neugebauer, "Beobachtungen 

aus dem Gebiete des Scheinzwittertumes," _Jahrbuch fuer Sexuelle 

Zwischenstufen_, Jahrgang iv, 1902, esp. p. 92.) At the same time 

this is only one thread in the tangled skein with which we are 

here concerned. The mass of facts which meets us when we turn to 

the study of modesty in women cannot be dismissed as a group of 

artificially-imposed customs. They gain rather than lose in 

importance if we have to realize that the organic sexual demands 

of women, calling for coyness in courtship, lead to the temporary 

suppression of another feminine instinct of opposite, though 

doubtless allied, nature. 

 

But these somewhat conflicting, though not really contradictory, 

statements serve to bring out the fact that a woman's modesty is 

often an incalculable element. The woman who, under some 

circumstances and at some times, is extreme in her reticences, 

under other circumstances or at other times, may be extreme in 

her abandonment. Not that her modesty is an artificial garment, 

which she throws off or on at will. It is organic, but like the 

snail's shell, it sometimes forms an impenetrable covering, and 

sometimes glides off almost altogether. A man's modesty is more 

rigid, with little tendency to deviate toward either extreme. 

Thus it is, that, when uninstructed, a man is apt to be impatient 

with a woman's reticences, and yet shocked at her abandonments. 

 

The significance of our inquiry becomes greater when we reflect that to 

the reticences of sexual modesty, in their progression, expansion, and 

complication, we largely owe, not only the refinement and development of 

the sexual emotions,--"_la pudeur_" as Guyau remarked, "_a civilise 

l'amour_"--but the subtle and pervading part which the sexual instinct has 

played in the evolution of all human culture. 

 

"It is certain that very much of what is best in religion, art, 

and life," remark Stanley Hall and Allin, "owes its charm to the 

progressively-widening irradiation of sexual feeling. Perhaps the 

reluctance of the female first long-circuited the exquisite 

sensations connected with sexual organs and acts to the antics of 

animal and human courtship, while restraint had the physiological 

function of developing the colors, plumes, excessive activity, 

and exuberant life of the pairing season. To keep certain parts 

of the body covered, irradiated the sense of beauty to eyes, 

hair, face, complexion, dress, form, etc., while many savage 

dances, costumes and postures are irradiations of the sexual act. 

Thus reticence, concealment, and restraint are among the prime 

conditions of religion and human culture." (Stanley Hall and 

Allin, "The Psychology of Tickling," _American Journal of 

Psychology_, 1897, p. 31.) 

 

Groos attributes the deepening of the conjugal relation among 

birds to the circumstance that the male seeks to overcome the 

reticence of the female by the display of his charms and 


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