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Table of contents
GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

abilities. "And in the human world," he continues, "it is the 

same; without the modest reserve of the woman that must, in most 

cases, be overcome by lovable qualities, the sexual relationship 

would with difficulty find a singer who would extol in love the 

highest movements of the human soul." (Groos, _Spiele der 

Menschen_, p. 341.) 

 

I have not, however, been, able to find that the subject of modesty has 

been treated in any comprehensive way by psychologists. Though valuable 

facts and suggestions bearing on the sexual emotions, on disgust, the 

origins of tatooing, on ornament and clothing, have been, brought forward 

by physiologists, psychologists, and ethnographists, few or no attempts 

appear to have been made to reach a general synthetic statement of these 

facts and suggestions. It is true that a great many unreliable, slight, or 

fragmentary efforts have been made to ascertain the constitution or basis 

of this emotion.[1] Many psychologists have regarded modesty simply as the 

result of clothing. This view is overturned by the well-ascertained fact 

that many races which go absolutely naked possess a highly-developed sense 

of modesty. These writers have not realized that physiological modesty is 

earlier in appearance, and more fundamental, than anatomical modesty. A 

partial contribution to the analysis of modesty has been made by Professor 

James, who, with his usual insight and lucidity, has set forth certain of 

its characteristics, especially the element due to "the application to 

ourselves of judgments primarily passed upon our mates." Guyau, in a very 

brief discussion of modesty, realized its great significance and touched 

on most of its chief elements.[2] Westermarck, again, followed by Grosse, 

has very ably and convincingly set forth certain factors in the origin of 

ornament and clothing, a subject which many writers imagine to cover the 

whole field of modesty. More recently Ribot, in his work on the emotions, 

has vaguely outlined most of the factors of modesty, but has not developed 

a coherent view of their origins and relationships. 

 

Since the present _Study_ first appeared, Hohenemser, who 

considers that my analysis of modesty is unsatisfactory, has made 

a notable attempt to define the psychological mechanism of shame. 

("Versuch einer Analyse der Scham," _Archiv fuer die Gesamte 

Psychologie_, Bd. II, Heft 2-3, 1903.) He regards shame as a 

general psycho-physical phenomenon, "a definite tension of the 

whole soul," with an emotion superadded. "The state of shame 

consists in a certain psychic lameness or inhibition," sometimes 

accompanied by physical phenomena of paralysis, such as sinking 

of the head and inability to meet the eye. It is a special case 

of Lipps's psychic stasis or damming up (_psychische Stauung_), 

always produced when the psychic activities are at the same time 

drawn in two or more different directions. In shame there is 

always something present in consciousness which conflicts with 

the rest of the personality, and cannot be brought into harmony 

with it, which cannot be brought, that is, into moral (not 

logical) relationship with it. A young man in love with a girl is 

ashamed when told that he is in love, because his reverence for 

one whom he regards as a higher being cannot be brought into 

relationship with his own lower personality. A child in the same 

way feels shame in approaching a big, grown-up person, who seems 


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