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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

and Gothland a battle of winter and summer, a triumphal entry of the 

latter. In Schonen, Denmark, Lower Saxony, and England, simply May-riding, 

or fetching of the May-wagon. On the Rhine merely a battle of winter and 

summer, without immersion, without the pomp of an entry. In Franconia, 

Thuringia, Meissen, Silesia, and Bohemia only the carrying out of wintry 

death; no battle, no formal introduction of summer. Of these festivals the 

first and second fall in May, the third and fourth in March. In the first 

two, the whole population take part with unabated enthusiasm; in the last 

two only the lower poorer class.... Everything goes to prove that the 

approach of summer was to our forefathers a holy tide, welcomed by 

sacrifice, feast, and dance, and largely governing and brightening the 

people's life."[144] The early spring festival of March, the festival of 

Ostara, the goddess of spring, has become identified with the Christian 

festival of Resurrection (just as the summer solstice festival has been 

placed beneath the patronage of St. John the Baptist); but there has been 

only an amalgamation of closely-allied rites, for the Christian festival 

also may be traced back to a similar origin. Among the early Arabians the 

great _ragab_ feast, identified by Ewald and Robertson Smith with the 

Jewish _paschal_ feast, fell in the spring or early summer, when the 

camels and other domestic animals brought forth their young and the 

shepherds offered their sacrifices.[145] Babylonia, the supreme early 

centre of religious and cosmological culture, presents a more decisive 

example of the sex festival. The festival of Tammuz is precisely analogous 

to the European festival of St. John's Day. Tammuz was the solar god of 

spring vegetation, and closely associated with Ishtar, also an 

agricultural deity of fertility. The Tammuz festival was, in the earliest 

times, held toward the summer solstice, at the time of the first wheat and 

barley harvest. In Babylonia, as in primitive Europe, there were only two 

seasons; the festival of Tammuz, coming at the end of winter and the 

beginning of summer, was a fast followed by a feast, a time of mourning 

for winter, of rejoicing for summer. It is part of the primitive function 

of sacred ritual to be symbolical of natural processes, a mysterious 

representation of natural processes with the object of bringing them 

about.[146] The Tammuz festival was an appeal to the powers of Nature to 

exhibit their generative functions; its erotic character is indicated not 

only by the well-known fact that the priestesses of Ishtar (the Kadishtu, 

or "holy ones") were prostitutes, but by the statements in Babylonian 

legends concerning the state of the earth during Ishtar's winter absence, 

when the bull, the ass, and man ceased to reproduce. It is evident that 

the return of spring, coincident with the Tammuz festival, was regarded as 

the period for the return of the reproductive instinct even in man.[147] 

So that along this line also we are led back to a great procreative 

festival. 

 

Thus the great spring festivals were held between March and June, 

frequently culminating in a great orgy on Midsummer's Eve. The next great 

season of festivals in Europe was in autumn. The beginning of August was a 

great festival in Celtic lands, and the echoes of it, Rhys remarks, have 

not yet died out in Wales.[148] The beginning of November, both in Celtic 

and Teutonic countries, was a period of bonfires.[149] In Germanic 


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