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 F. Smith, _Veterinary Physiology_; Dalziel, _The Collie_.
 Mondiere, Art "Cambodgiens," _Dictionnaire des Sciences
 This primitive aspect of the festival is well shown by the human
sacrifices which the ancient Mexicans offered at this time, in order to
enable the sun to recuperate his strength. The custom survives in a
symbolical form among the Mokis, who observe the festivals of the winter
solstice and the vernal equinox. ("Aspects of Sun-worship among the Moki
Indians," _Nature_, July 28, 1898.) The Walpi, a Tusayan people, hold a
similar great sun-festival at the winter solstice, and December is with
them a sacred month, in which there is no work and little play. This
festival, in which there is a dance dramatizing the fructification of the
earth and the imparting of virility to the seeds of corn, is fully
described by J. Walter Fewkes (_American Anthropologist_, March, 1898).
That these solemn annual dances and festivals of North America frequently
merge into "a lecherous _saturnalia_" when "all is joy and happiness," is
stated by H.H. Bancroft (_Native Races of Pacific States_, vol. i, p.
 As regards the northern tribes of Central Australia, Spencer and
Gillen state that, during the performance of certain ceremonies which
bring together a large number of natives from different parts, the
ordinary marital rules are more or less set aside (_Northern Tribes of
Central Australia_, p. 136). Just in the same way, among the Siberian
Yakuts, according to Sieroshevski, during weddings and at the great
festivals of the year, the usual oversight of maidens is largely removed.
(_Journal of the Anthropological Institute_, Jan.-June, 1901, p. 96.)
 R.E. Guise, _Journal of the Anthropological Institute_, 1899, pp.
 Dalton, _Ethnology of Bengal_, pp. 196 et seq. W. Crooke (_Journal
of the Anthropological Institute_, p. 243, 1899) also refers to the annual
harvest-tree dance and _saturnalia_, and its association with the seasonal
period for marriage. We find a similar phenomenon in the Malay Peninsula:
"In former days, at harvest-time, the Jakuns kept an annual festival, at
which, the entire settlement having been called together, fermented
liquor, brewed from jungle fruits, was drunk; and to the accompaniments of
strains of their rude and incondite music, both sexes, crowning themselves
with fragrant leaves and flowers, indulged in bouts of singing and
dancing, which grew gradually wilder throughout the night, and terminated
in a strange kind of sexual orgie." (W.W. Skeat, "The Wild Tribes of the
Malay Peninsula," _Journal of the Anthropological Institute_, 1902, p.
 Fielding Hall, _The Soul of a People_, 1898, Chapter XIII.
 See e.g., L. Dyer, _Studies of the Gods in Greece_, 1891, pp. 86-89,
 For a popular account of the Feast of Fools, see Loliee, "La Fete
des Fous," _Revue des Revues_, May 15, 1898; also, J.G. Bourke,
_Scatologic Rites of all Nations_, pp. 11-23.
 J. Grimm (_Teutonic Mythology_, p. 615) points out that the
observance of the spring or Easter bonfires marks off the Saxon from the
Franconian peoples. The Easter bonfires are held in Lower Saxony,
Westphalia, Lower Hesse, Geldern, Holland, Friesland, Jutland, and
Zealand. The Midsummer bonfires are held on the Rhine, in Franconia,
Thuringia, Swabia, Bavaria, Austria, and Silesia. Schwartz (_Zeitschrift
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