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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

(_Medical Record_, March 25, 1899), in an analysis of 333 cases 

of neurasthenia, found that 123 cases were apparently due to 

overwork or masturbation. Freud concludes that neurasthenia 

proper can nearly always be traced to excessive masturbation, or 

to spontaneous pollutions. (E.g., _Sammlung Kleiner Schriften zur 

Neurosenlehre_, first series, p. 187.) This view is confirmed by 

Gattel's careful study (_Ueber die Sexuellen Ursachen der 

Neurasthenie und Angstneurose_, 1898). Gattel investigated 100 

consecutive cases of severe functional nervous disorder in 

Krafft-Ebing's clinic at Vienna, and found that in every case of 

neurasthenia in a male (28 in all) there was masturbation, while 

of the 15 women with neurasthenia, only one is recorded as not 

masturbating, and she practiced _coitus reservatus_. Irrespective 

of the particular form of the nervous disorder, Gattel found that 

18 women out of 42, and 36 men out of 58, acknowledged 

masturbation. (This shows a slightly larger proportion among the 

men, but the men were mostly young, while the women were mostly 

of more mature age.) It must, however, always be remembered that 

we have no equally careful statistics of masturbation in 

perfectly healthy persons. We must also remember that we have to 

distinguish between the _post_ and the _propter_, and that it is 

quite possible that neurasthenic persons are specially 

predisposed to masturbation. Bloch is of this opinion, and 

remarks that a vicious circle may thus be formed. 

 

On the whole, there can be little doubt that neurasthenia is 

liable to be associated with masturbation carried to an excessive 

extent. But, while neurasthenia is probably the severest 

affection that is liable to result from, or accompany, 

masturbation, we are scarcely yet entitled to accept the 

conclusion of Gattel that in such cases there is no hereditary 

neurotic predisposition. We must steer clearly between the 

opposite errors of those, on the one hand, who assert that 

heredity is the sole cause of functional nervous disorders, and 

those, on the other hand, who consider that the incident that may 

call out the disorder is itself a sole sufficient cause. 

 

In many cases it has seemed to me that masturbation, when practiced in 

excess, especially if begun before the age of puberty, leads to inaptitude 

for coitus, as well as to indifference to it, and sometimes to undue 

sexual irritability, involving premature emission and practical impotence. 

This is, however, the exception, especially if the practice has not been 

begun until after puberty. In women I attach considerable importance, as a 

result of masturbation, to an aversion for normal coitus in later life. In 

such cases some peripheral irritation or abnormal mental stimulus trains 

the physical sexual orgasm to respond to an appeal which has nothing 

whatever to do with the fascination normally exerted by the opposite sex. 

At puberty, however, the claim of passion and the real charm of sex begin 

to make themselves felt, but, owing to the physical sexual feelings having 

been trained into a foreign channel, these new and more normal sex 

associations remain of a purely ideal and emotional character, without the 

strong sensual impulses with which under healthy conditions they tend to 

be more and more associated as puberty passes on into adolescence or 


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