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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

the famous philosopher, for masturbating in the market-place. The more 

strenuous Romans, at all events as exemplified by Juvenal and Martial, 

condemned masturbation more vigorously.[347] Aretaeus, without alluding to 

masturbation, dwells on the tonic effects of retaining the semen; but, on 

the other hand, Galen regarded the retention of semen as injurious, and 

advocated its frequent expulsion, a point of view which tended to justify 

masturbation. In classical days, doubtless, masturbation and all other 

forms of the auto-erotic impulse were comparatively rare. So much scope 

was allowed in early adult age for homosexual and later for heterosexual 

relationships that any excessive or morbid development of solitary 

self-indulgence could seldom occur. The case was altered when Christian 

ideals became prominent. Christian morality strongly proscribed sexual 

relationships except under certain specified conditions. It is true that 

Christianity discouraged all sexual manifestations, and that therefore its 

ban fell equally on masturbation, but, obviously, masturbation lay at the 

weakest line of defence against the assaults of the flesh; it was there 

that resistance would most readily yield. Christianity thus probably led 

to a considerable increase of masturbation. The attention which the 

theologians devoted to its manifestations clearly bears witness to their 

magnitude. It is noteworthy that Mohammedan theologians regarded 

masturbation as a Christian vice. In Islam both doctrine and practice 

tended to encourage sexual relationships, and not much attention was paid 

to masturbation, nor even any severe reprobation directed against it. Omer 

Haleby remarks that certain theologians of Islam are inclined to consider 

the practice of masturbation in vogue among Christians as allowable to 

devout Mussulmans when alone on a journey; he himself regards this as a 

practice good neither for soul nor body (seminal emissions during sleep 

providing all necessary relief); should, however, a Mussulman fall into 

this error, God is merciful![348] 

 

In Theodore's Penitential of the seventh century, forty days' 

penance is prescribed for masturbation. Aquinas condemned 

masturbation as worse than fornication, though less heinous than 

other sexual offences against Nature; in opposition, also, to 

those who believed that _distillatio_ usually takes place without 

pleasure, he observed that it was often caused by sexual emotion, 

and should, therefore, always be mentioned to the confessor. 

Liguori also regarded masturbation as a graver sin than 

fornication, and even said that _distillatio_, if voluntary and 

with notable physical commotion, is without doubt a mortal sin, 

for in such a case it is the beginning of a pollution. On the 

other hand, some theologians have thought that _distillatio_ may 

be permitted, even if there is some commotion, so long as it has 

not been voluntarily procured, and Caramuel, who has been 

described as a theological _enfant terrible_, declared that 

"natural law does not forbid masturbation," but that proposition 

was condemned by Innocent XI. The most enlightened modern 

Catholic view is probably represented by Debreyne, who, after 

remarking that he has known pious and intelligent persons who had 

an irresistible impulse to masturbate, continues: "Must we 

excuse, or condemn, these people? Neither the one nor the other. 


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