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 For a bibliography of masturbation, see Rohleder, _Die
Masturbation_, pp. 11-18; also, Arthur MacDonald, _Le Criminel Type_, pp.
227 et seq.; cf. G. Stanley Hall, _Adolescence_, vol. i, pp. 432 _et seq._
 Oskar Berger, _Archiv fuer Psychiatrie_, Bd. 6, 1876.
 _Die Masturbation_, p. 41.
 Dukes, _Preservation of Health_, 1884, p. 150.
 G. Stanley Hall, _Adolescence_, vol. i, p. 434.
 F.S. Brockman, "A Study of the Moral and Religious Life of Students
in the United States," _Pedagogical Seminary_, September, 1902. Many
pitiful narratives are reproduced.
 Moraglia, "Die Onanie beim normalen Weibe und bei den Prostituten,"
_Zeitschrift fuer Criminal-Anthropologie_, 1897, p. 489. It should be added
that Moraglia is not a very critical investigator. It is probable,
however, that on this point his results are an approximation to the truth.
 Ernst, "Anthropological Researches on the Population of Venezuela,"
_Memoirs of the Anthropological Society_, vol. iii, 1870, p. 277.
 Niceforo, _Il Gergo nei Normali_, etc., 1897, cap. V.
 Debreyne, _Moechialogie_, p. 64. Yet theologians and casuists,
Debreyne remarks, frequently never refer to masturbation in women.
 Stanley Hall, op. cit., vol. i, p. 34. Hall mentions, also, that
masturbation is specially common among the blind.
 Moraglia, _Archivio di Psichiatria_, vol. xvi, fasc. 4 and 5, p.
 See his careful study, "Die Sexuellen Perversitaeten in der
Irrenanstalt," _Psychiatrische Bladen_, No. 2. 1899.
 Venturi, _Degenerazioni Psico-sessuali_, pp. 105, 133, 148, 152.
 J.P. West, _Transactions of the Ohio Pediatric Society_, 1895.
_Abstract in Medical Standard_, November, 1895; cases are also recorded by
J.T. Winter, "Self-abuse in Infancy and Childhood," _American Journal
Obstetrics_, June, 1902.
 Freud, _Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie_, pp. 36 et seq.
 G.E. Shuttleworth, _British Medical Journal_, October 3, 1903.
 See for a detailed study of sexuality in childhood, Moll's valuable
book, _Das Sexualleben des Kindes_; cf. vol. vi of these _Studies_, Ch.
 This is, no doubt, the most common opinion, and it is frequently
repeated in text-books. It is scarcely necessary, however, to point out
that only the opinions of those who have given special attention to the
matter can carry any weight. R.W. Shufeldt ("On a Case of Female
Impotency," pp. 5-7) quotes the opinions of various cautious observers as
to the difficulty of detecting masturbation in women.
 This latter opinion is confirmed by Naecke so far as the insane are
concerned. In a careful study of sexual perversity in a large asylum,
Naecke found that, while moderate masturbation could be more easily traced
among men than among women, excessive masturbation was more common among
women. And, while among the men masturbation was most frequent in the
lowest grades of mental development (idiocy and imbecility), and least
frequent in the highest grades (general paralysis), in the women it was
the reverse. (P. Naecke, "Die Sexuellen Perversitaeten in der Irrenanstalt,"
_Psychiatrische en Neurologische Bladen_, No. 2, 1899.)
 Mammary masturbation sometimes occurs; see, e.g., Rohleder, _Die
Masturbation_ (pp. 32-33); it is, however, rare.
 Hirschsprung pointed out this, indeed, many years ago, on the ground
of his own experience. And see Rohleder, op. cit., pp. 44-47.
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