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the morbid fear of the eyes of others.
 It is especially an undesirable tendency of masturbation, that it
deadens the need for affection, and merely eludes, instead of satisfying,
the sexual impulse. "Masturbation," as Godfrey well says (_The Science of
Sex_, p. 178), "though a manifestation of sexual activity, is not a sexual
act in the higher, or even in the real fundamental sense. For sex implies
duality, a characteristic to which masturbation can plainly lay no claim.
The physical, moral, and mental reciprocity which gives stability and
beauty to a normal sexual intimacy, are as foreign to the masturbator as
to the celibate. In a sense, therefore, masturbation is as complete a
negative of the sexual life as chastity itself. It is, therefore, an
evasion of, not an answer to, the sexual problem; and it will ever remain
so, no matter how surely we may be convinced of its physical
 "I learnt that dangerous supplement," Rousseau tells us (Part I, Bk.
III), "which deceives Nature. This vice, which bashfulness and timidity
find so convenient, has, moreover, a great attraction for lively
imaginations, for it enables them to do what they will, so to speak, with
the whole fair sex, and to enjoy at pleasure the beauty who attracts them,
without having obtained her consent."
 "Ich hatte sie wirklich verloren, und die Tollheit, mit der ich
meinen Fehler an mir selbst raechte, indem ich auf mancherlei unsinnige
Weise in meine physische Natur sturmte, um der sittlichen etwas zu Leide
zu thun, hat sehr viel zu den koerperlichen Uebeln beigetragen, unter denen
ich einige der besten Jahre meines Lebens verlor; ja ich waere vielleicht
an diesem Verlust vollig zu Grunde gegangen, haette sich hier nicht das
poetische Talent mit seinen Heilkraften besonders huelfreich erwiesen."
This is scarcely conclusive, and it may be added that there were many
reasons why Goethe should have suffered physically at this time, quite
apart from masturbation. See, e.g., Bielschowsky, _Life of Goethe_, vol.
i, p. 88.
 _Les Obsessions_, vol. ii, p. 136.
 A somewhat similar classification has already been made by Max
Dessoir, who points out that we must distinguish between onanists _aus
Noth_, and onanists _aus Leidenschaft_, the latter group alone being of
really serious importance. The classification of Dallemagne is also
somewhat similar; he distinguishes _onanie par impulsion_, occurring in
mental degeneration and in persons of inferior intelligence, from _onanie
par evocation ou obsession_.
 W. Xavier Sudduth, "A Study in the Psycho-physics of Masturbation,"
_Chicago Medical Recorder_, March, 1898. Haig, who reaches a similar
conclusion, has sought to find its precise mechanism in the
blood-pressure. "As the sexual act produces lower and falling
blood-pressure," he remarks, "it will of necessity relieve conditions
which are due to high and rising blood-pressure, such, for instance, as
mental depression and bad temper; and, unless my observation deceives me,
we have here a connection between conditions of high blood-pressure with
mental and bodily depression and acts of masturbation, for this act will
relieve these conditions and tend to be practiced for this purpose."
(_Uric Acid_, 6th edition, p. 154.)
 Northcote discusses the classic attitude towards masturbation,
_Christianity and Sex Problems_, p. 233.
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