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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

APPENDIX A. 

 

THE INFLUENCE OF MENSTRUATION ON THE POSITION OF WOMEN. 

 

 

A question of historical psychology which, so far as I know, has never 

been fully investigated is the influence of menstruation in constituting 

the emotional atmosphere through which men habitually view women.[353] I 

do not purpose to deal fully with this question, because it is one which 

may be more properly dealt with at length by the student of culture and by 

the historian, rather than from the standpoint of empirical psychology. It 

is, moreover, a question full of complexities in regard to which it is 

impossible to speak with certainty. But we here strike on a factor of such 

importance, such neglected importance, for the proper understanding of the 

sexual relations of men and women, that it cannot be wholly ignored. 

 

Among the negroes of Surinam a woman must live in solitude during the time 

of her period; it is dangerous for any man or woman to approach her, and 

when she sees a person coming near she cries out anxiously: "_Mi kay! Mi 

kay!_"--I am unclean! I am unclean! Throughout the world we find traces of 

the custom of which this is a typical example, but we must not too hastily 

assume that this custom is evidence of the inferior position occupied by 

semi-civilized women. It is necessary to take a broad view, not only of 

the beliefs of semi-civilized man regarding menstruation, but of his 

general beliefs regarding the supernatural forces of the world. 

 

There is no fragment of folk-lore so familiar to the European world as 

that which connects woman with the serpent. It is, indeed, one of the 

foundation stones of Christian theology.[354] Yet there is no fragment of 

folk-lore which remains more obscure. How has it happened that in all 

parts of the world the snake or his congeners, the lizard and the 

crocodile, have been credited with some design, sinister or erotic, on 

women? 

 

Of the wide prevalence of the belief there can be no doubt. Among the Port 

Lincoln tribe of South Australia a lizard is said to have divided man from 

woman.[355] Among the Chiriguanos of Bolivia, on the appearance of 

menstruation, old women ran about with sticks to hunt the snake that had 

wounded the girl. Frazer, who quotes this example from the "_Lettres 

edifiantes et curieuses_," also refers to a modern Greek folk-tale, 

according to which a princess at puberty must not let the sun shine upon 

her, or she would be turned into a lizard.[356] The lizard was a sexual 

symbol among the Mexicans. In some parts of Brazil at the onset of puberty 

a girl must not go into the woods for fear of the amorous attacks of 

snakes, and so it is also among the Macusi Indians of British Guiana, 

according to Schomburgk. Among the Basutos of South Africa the young girls 

must dance around the clay image of a snake. In Polynesian mythology the 

lizard is a very sacred animal, and legends represent women as often 

giving birth to lizards.[357] At a widely remote spot, in Bengal, if you 

dream of a snake a child will be born to you, reports Sarat Chandra 

Mitra.[358] In the Berlin Museum fuer Volkerkunde there is a carved wooden 

figure from New Guinea of a woman into whose vulva a crocodile is 

inserting its snout, while the same museum contains another figure of a 

snake-like crocodile crawling out of a woman's vulva, and a third figure 

shows a small round snake with a small head, and closely resembling a 

penis, at the mouth of the vagina. All these figures are reproduced by 


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