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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

Ploss and Bartels. Even in modern Europe the same ideas prevail. In 

Portugal, according to Reys, it is believed that during menstruation women 

are liable to be bitten by lizards, and to guard against this risk they 

wear drawers during the period. In Germany, again, it was believed, up to 

the eighteenth century at least, that the hair of a menstruating woman, if 

buried, would turn into a snake. It may be added that in various parts of 

the world virgin priestesses are dedicated to a snake-god and are married 

to the god.[359] At Rome, it is interesting to note, the serpent was the 

symbol of fecundation, and as such often figures at Pompeii as the _genius 

patrisfamilias_, the generative power of the family.[360] In Rabbinical 

tradition, also, the serpent is the symbol of sexual desire. 

 

There can be no doubt that--as Ploss and Bartels, from whom some of these 

examples have been taken, point out--in widely different parts of the 

world menstruation is believed to have been originally caused by a snake, 

and that this conception is frequently associated with an erotic and 

mystic idea.[361] How the connection arose Ploss and Bartels are unable to 

say. It can only be suggested that its shape and appearance, as well as 

its venomous nature, may have contributed to the mystery everywhere 

associated with the snake--a mystery itself fortified by the association 

with women--to build up this world-wide belief regarding the origin of 

menstruation. 

 

This primitive theory of the origin of menstruation probably brings before 

us in its earliest shape the special and intimate bond which has ever been 

held to connect women, by virtue of the menstrual process, with the 

natural or supernatural powers of the world. Everywhere menstruating women 

are supposed to be possessed by spirits and charged with mysterious 

forces. It is at this point that a serious misconception, due to ignorance 

of primitive religious ideas, has constantly intruded. It is stated that 

the menstruating woman is "unclean" and possessed by an evil spirit. As a 

matter of fact, however, the savage rarely discriminates between bad and 

good spirits. Every spirit may have either a beneficial or malignant 

influence. An interesting instance of this is given in Colenso's _Maori 

Lexicon_ as illustrated by the meaning of the Maori word _atua_. 

 

The importance of recognizing the special sense in which the word 

"unclean" is used in this connection was clearly pointed out by Robertson 

Smith in the case of the Semites. "The Hebrew word _tame_ (unclean)," he 

remarked, "is not the ordinary word for things physically foul; it is a 

ritual term, and corresponds exactly to the idea of _taboo_. The ideas 

'unclean' and 'holy' seem to us to stand in polar opposition to one 

another, but it was not so with the Semites. Among the later Jews the Holy 

Books 'defiled the hands' of the reader as contact with an impure thing 

did; among Lucian's Syrians the dove was so holy that he who touched it 

was unclean for a day; and the _taboo_ attaching to the swine was 

explained by some, and beyond question correctly explained, in the same 

way. Among the heathen Semites,[362] therefore, unclean animals, which it 

was pollution to eat, were simply holy animals." Robertson Smith here 

made no reference to menstruation, but he exactly described the primitive 

attitude toward menstruation. Wellhausen, however, dealing with the early 

Arabians, expressly mentions that in pre-Islamic days, "clean" and 


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