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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

"unclean" were used solely with reference to women in and out of the 

menstrual state. At a later date Frazer developed this aspect of the 

conception of taboo, and showed how it occurs among savage races 

generally. He pointed out that the conceptions of holiness and pollution 

not having yet been differentiated, women at childbirth and during 

menstruation are on the same level as divine kings, chiefs, and priests, 

and must observe the same rules of ceremonial purity. To seclude such 

persons from the rest of the world, so that the dreaded spiritual danger 

shall not spread, is the object of the taboo, which Frazer compares to "an 

electrical insulator to preserve the spiritual force with which these 

persons are charged from suffering or inflicting, harm by contact with the 

outer world." After describing the phenomena (especially the prohibition 

to touch the ground or see the sun) found among various races, Frazer 

concludes: "The object of secluding women at menstruation is to neutralize 

the dangerous influences which are supposed to emanate from them at such 

times. The general effect of these rules is to keep the girl suspended, so 

to say, between heaven and earth. Whether enveloped in her hammock and 

slung up to the roof, as in South America, or elevated above the ground in 

a dark and narrow cage, as in New Zealand, she may be considered to be out 

of the way of doing mischief, since, being shut off both from the earth 

and from the sun, she can poison neither of these great sources of life by 

her deadly contagion. The precautions thus taken to isolate or insulate 

the girl are dictated by regard for her own safety as well as for the 

safety of others.... In short, the girl is viewed as charged with a 

powerful force which, if not kept within bounds, may prove the destruction 

both of the girl herself and of all with whom she comes in contact. To 

repress this force within the limits necessary for the safety of all 

concerned is the object of the taboos in question. The same explanation 

applies to the observance of the same rules by divine kings and priests. 

The uncleanliness, as it is called, of girls at puberty and the sanctity 

of holy men do not, to the primitive mind, differ from each other. They 

are only different manifestations of the same supernatural energy, which, 

like energy in general, is in itself neither good nor bad, but becomes 

beneficent or malignant according to its application."[363] 

 

More recently this view of the matter has been further extended by the 

distinguished French sociologist, Durkheim. Investigating the origins of 

the prohibition of incest, and arguing that it proceeds from the custom of 

exogamy (or marriage outside the clan), and that this rests on certain 

ideas about blood, which, again, are traceable to totemism,--a theory 

which we need not here discuss,--Durkheim is brought face to face with the 

group of conceptions that now concern us. He insists on the extreme 

ambiguity found in primitive culture concerning the notion of the divine, 

and the close connection between aversion and veneration, and points out 

that it is not only at puberty and each recurrence of the menstrual epoch 

that women have aroused these emotions, but also at childbirth. "A 

sentiment of religious horror," he continues, "which can reach such a 

degree of intensity, which can be called forth by so many circumstances, 

and reappears regularly every month to last for a week at least, cannot 


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