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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

II. 

 

Modesty an Agglomeration of Fears--Children in Relation to 

Modesty--Modesty in Animals--The Attitude of the Medicean Venus--The 

Sexual Factor of Modesty Based on Sexual Periodicity and on the Primitive 

Phenomena of Courtship--The Necessity of Seclusion in Primitive Sexual 

Intercourse--The Meaning of Coquetry--The Sexual Charm of Modesty--Modesty 

as an Expression of Feminine Erotic Impulse--The Fear of Causing Disgust 

as a Factor of Modesty--The Modesty of Savages in Regard to Eating in the 

Presence of Others--The Sacro-Pubic Region as a Focus of Disgust--The Idea 

of Ceremonial Uncleanliness--The Custom of Veiling the Face--Ornaments and 

Clothing--Modesty Becomes Concentrated in the Garment--The Economic Factor 

in Modesty--The Contribution of Civilization to Modesty--The Elaboration 

of Social Ritual. 

 

 

That modesty--like all the closely-allied emotions--is based on fear, one 

of the most primitive of the emotions, seems to be fairly evident.[4] The 

association of modesty and fear is even a very ancient observation, and is 

found in the fragments of Epicharmus, while according to one of the most 

recent definitions, "modesty is the timidity of the body." Modesty is, 

indeed, an agglomeration of fears, especially, as I hope to show, of two 

important and distinct fears: one of much earlier than human origin, and 

supplied solely by the female; the other of more distinctly human 

character, and of social, rather than sexual, origin. 

 

A child left to itself, though very bashful, is wholly devoid of 

modesty.[5] Everyone is familiar with the shocking _inconvenances_ of 

children in speech and act, with the charming ways in which they 

innocently disregard the conventions of modesty their elders thrust upon 

them, or, even when anxious to carry them out, wholly miss the point at 

issue: as when a child thinks that to put a little garment round the neck 

satisfies the demands of modesty. Julius Moses states that modesty in the 

uncovering of the sexual parts begins about the age of four. But in cases 

when this occurs it is difficult to exclude teaching and example. Under 

civilized conditions the convention of modesty long precedes its real 

development. Bell has found that in love affairs before the age of nine 

the girl is more aggressive than the boy and that at that age she begins 

to be modest.[6] It may fairly be said that complete development of 

modesty only takes place at the advent of puberty.[7] We may admit, with 

Perez, one of the very few writers who touch on the evolution of this 

emotion, that modesty may appear at a very early age if sexual desire 

appears early.[8] We should not, however, be justified in asserting that 

on this account modesty is a purely sexual phenomenon. The social impulses 

also develop about puberty, and to that coincidence the compound nature of 

the emotion of modesty may well be largely due. 

 

The sexual factor is, however, the simplest and most primitive element of 

modesty, and may, therefore, be mentioned first. Anyone who watches a 

bitch, not in heat, when approached by a dog with tail wagging gallantly, 

may see the beginnings of modesty. When the dog's attentions become a 

little too marked, the bitch squats firmly down on the front legs and hind 

quarters though when the period of oestrus comes her modesty may be flung 

to the air and she eagerly turns her hind quarters to her admirer's nose 

and elevates her tail high in the air. Her attitude of refusal is 

equivalent, that is to say, to that which in the human race is typified by 


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