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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

concealment, as they walk up from the sea. 

 

The sexual modesty of the female animal is rooted in the sexual 

periodicity of the female, and is an involuntary expression of the organic 

fact that the time for love is not now. Inasmuch as this fact is true of 

the greater part of the lives of all female animals below man, the 

expression itself becomes so habitual that it even intrudes at those 

moments when it has ceased to be in place. We may see this again 

illustrated in the bitch, who, when in heat, herself runs after the male, 

and again turns to flee, perhaps only submitting with much persuasion to 

his embrace. Thus, modesty becomes something more than a mere refusal of 

the male; it becomes an invitation to the male, and is mixed up with his 

ideas of what is sexually desirable in the female. This would alone serve 

to account for the existence of modesty as a psychical secondary sexual 

character. In this sense, and in this sense only, we may say, with Colin 

Scott, that "the feeling of shame is made to be overcome," and is thus 

correlated with its physical representative, the hymen, in the rupture of 

which, as Groos remarks, there is, in some degree, a disruption also of 

modesty. The sexual modesty of the female is thus an inevitable by-product 

of the naturally aggressive attitude of the male in sexual relationships, 

and the naturally defensive attitude of the female, this again being 

founded on the fact that, while--in man and the species allied to him--the 

sexual function in the female is periodic, and during most of life a 

function to be guarded from the opposite sex, in the male it rarely or 

never needs to be so guarded.[11] 

 

Both male and female, however, need to guard themselves during the 

exercise of their sexual activities from jealous rivals, as well as from 

enemies who might take advantage of their position to attack them. It is 

highly probable that this is one important sexual factor in the 

constitution of modesty, and it helps to explain how the male, not less 

than the female, cultivates modesty, and shuns publicity, in the exercise 

of sexual functions. Northcote has especially emphasized this element in 

modesty, as originating in the fear of rivals. "That from this seeking 

after secrecy from motives of fear should arise an instinctive feeling 

that the sexual act must always be hidden, is a natural enough sequence. 

And since it is not a long step between thinking of an act as needing 

concealment and thinking of it as wrong, it is easily conceivable that 

sexual intercourse comes to be regarded as a stolen and therefore, in some 

degree, a sinful pleasure."[12] 

 

Animals in a state of nature usually appear to seek seclusion for sexual 

intercourse, although this instinct is lost under domestication. Even the 

lowest savages, also, if uncorrupted by civilized influences, seek the 

solitude of the forest or the protection of their huts for the same 

purpose; the rare cases in which coitus is public seem usually to involve 

a ceremonial or social observance, rather than mere personal 

gratification. At Loango, for instance, it would be highly improper to 

have intercourse in an exposed spot; it must only be performed inside the 

hut, with closed doors, at night, when no one is present.[13] 

 

It is on the sexual factor of modesty, existing in a well-marked 

form even among animals, that coquetry is founded. I am glad to 

find myself on this point in agreement with Professor Groos, who, 


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