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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

is a Scotch saying, to which corresponds the Welsh saying, "The more 

prudish the more unchaste."[23] 

 

It is not, at first, quite clear why an excessively shy and 

modest woman should be the most apt for intimate relationships 

with a man, and in such a case the woman is often charged with 

hypocrisy. There is, however, no hypocrisy in the matter. The shy 

and reserved woman holds herself aloof from intimacy in ordinary 

friendship, because she is acutely sensitive to the judgments of 

others, and fears that any seemingly immodest action may make an 

unfavorable opinion. With a lover, however, in whose eyes she 

feels assured that her actions can not be viewed unfavorably, 

these barriers of modesty fall down, and the resulting intimacy 

becomes all the more fascinating to the woman because of its 

contrast with the extreme reserve she is impelled to maintain in 

other relationships. It thus happens that many modest women who, 

in non-sexual relationships with their own sex, are not able to 

act with the physical unreserve not uncommon with women among 

themselves, yet feel no such reserve with a man, when they are 

once confident of his good opinion. Much the same is true of 

modest and sensitive men in their relations with women. 

 

This fundamental animal factor of modesty, rooted in the natural facts of 

the sexual life of the higher mammals, and especially man, obviously will 

not explain all the phenomena of modesty. We must turn to the other great 

primary element of modesty, the social factor. 

 

We cannot doubt that one of the most primitive and universal of the social 

characteristics of man is an aptitude for disgust, founded, as it is, on a 

yet more primitive and animal aptitude for disgust, which has little or no 

social significance. In nearly all races, even the most savage, we seem 

to find distinct traces of this aptitude for disgust in the presence of 

certain actions of others, an emotion naturally reflected in the 

individual's own actions, and hence a guide to conduct. Notwithstanding 

our gastric community of disgust with lower animals, it is only in man 

that this disgust seems to become transformed and developed, to possess a 

distinctly social character, and to serve as a guide to social 

conduct.[24] The objects of disgust vary infinitely according to the 

circumstances and habits of particular races, but the reaction of disgust 

is fundamental throughout. 

 

The best study of the phenomena of disgust known to me is, without doubt, 

Professor Richet's.[25] Richet concludes that it is the _dangerous_ and 

the _useless_ which evoke disgust. The digestive and sexual excretions and 

secretions, being either useless or, in accordance with widespread 

primitive ideas, highly dangerous, the genito-anal region became a 

concentrated focus of disgust.[26] It is largely for this reason, no 

doubt, that savage men exhibit modesty, not only toward women, but toward 

their own sex, and that so many of the lowest savages take great 

precautions in obtaining seclusion for the fulfillment of natural 

functions. The statement, now so often made, that the primary object of 

clothes is to accentuate, rather than to conceal, has in it--as I shall 

point out later--a large element of truth, but it is by no means a 

complete account of the matter. It seems difficult not to admit that, 

alongside the impulse to accentuate sexual differences, there is also in 


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