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GENERAL PREFACE
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-1.6
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.1
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.2
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.4
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-2.5
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-3
THE EVOLUTION OF MODESTY-4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-1.2
FOOTNOTES
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-2.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.1
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.2
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.3
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.4
THE PHENOMENA OF SEXUAL PERIODICITY-3.5
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-1.6
FOOTNOTES
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-2.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.1
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.2
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.3
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.4
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.5
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.6
AUTO-EROTISM: A STUDY OF THE SPONTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SEXUAL IMPULSE-3.7
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A-1.1
APPENDIX A-1.2
APPENDIX B-1.1
APPENDIX B-1.2
APPENDIX C-1.1
APPENDIX C-1.2
INDEX OF AUTHORS

both men and women a genuine impulse to concealment among the most 

primitive peoples, and the invincible repugnance often felt by savages to 

remove the girdle or apron, is scarcely accounted for by the theory that 

it is solely a sexual lure. 

 

In this connection it seems to me instructive to consider a special form 

of modesty very strongly marked among savages in some parts of the world. 

I refer to the feeling of immodesty in eating. Where this feeling exists, 

modesty is offended when one eats in public; the modest man retires to 

eat. Indecency, said Cook, was utterly unknown among the Tahitians; but 

they would not eat together; even brothers and sisters had their separate 

baskets of provisions, and generally sat some yards apart, with their 

backs to each other, when they ate.[27] The Warrua of Central Africa, 

Cameron found, when offered a drink, put up a cloth before their faces 

while they swallowed it, and would not allow anyone to see them eat or 

drink; so that every man or woman must have his own fire and cook for 

himself.[28] Karl von den Steinen remarks, in his interesting book on 

Brazil, that though the Bakairi of Central Brazil have no feeling of shame 

about nakedness, they are ashamed to eat in public; they retire to eat, 

and hung their heads in shame-faced confusion when they saw him innocently 

eat in public. Hrolf Vaughan Stevens found that, when he gave an Orang 

Laut (Malay) woman anything to eat, she not only would not eat it if her 

husband were present, but if any man were present she would go outside 

before eating or giving her children to eat.[29] Thus among these peoples 

the act of eating in public produces the same feelings as among ourselves 

the indecent exposure of the body in public.[30] 

 

It is quite easy to understand how this arises. Whenever there is any 

pressure on the means of subsistence, as among savages at some time or 

another there nearly always is, it must necessarily arouse a profound and 

mixed emotion of desire and disgust to see another person putting into his 

stomach what one might just as well have put into one's own.[31] The 

special secrecy sometimes observed by women is probably due to the fact 

that women would be less able to resist the emotions that the act of 

eating would arouse in onlookers. As social feeling develops, a man 

desires not only to eat in safety, but also to avoid being an object of 

disgust, and to spare his friends all unpleasant emotions. Hence it 

becomes a requirement of ordinary decency to eat in private. A man who 

eats in public becomes--like the man who in our cities exposes his person 

in public--an object of disgust and contempt. 

 

Long ago, when a hospital student on midwifery duty in London slums, I had 

occasion to observe that among the women of the poor, and more especially 

in those who had lost the first bloom of youth, modesty consisted chiefly 

in the fear of being disgusting. There was an almost pathetic anxiety, in 

the face of pain and discomfort, not to be disgusting in the doctor's 

eyes. This anxiety expressed itself in the ordinary symptoms of modesty. 

But, as soon as the woman realized that I found nothing disgusting in 

whatever was proper and necessary to be done under the circumstances, it 

almost invariably happened that every sign of modesty at once 

disappeared.[32] In the special and elementary conditions of parturition, 

modesty is reduced to this one fear of causing disgust; so that, when that 


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